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Parrot Breeders Association Of Southern Africa


Code of Practice

1 Introduction:

In achieving its goal as set out in the Constitution of the Parrot Breeders Association of South Africa (PASA) in protecting the rights of its members to breed and market their parrots, to provide guidelines in keeping, taking care of, housing and dealing in parrots and to work in association with National and International Organizations that affects the rights of its members the following Code of Practice is hereby implemented for all its members.

In addition to the Code of Practice a recommended Good Code of Conduct is also introduced as set out in Part II hereof.

Purpose of the Code of Practice:
The aim of this code of practice is:
2.1 To set minimum standards for Parrot Breeders in providing in the needs of parrots in respect of the following fields:

  • Main needs associated with domestication
  • Facility needs
  • Environmental needs
  • Activity needs

2.2 To set standards that will be Internationally acceptable for providing healthy parrots to domestic and international markets.

Main needs associated with domestication:

3.1 Humans

Parrot behavior will be considered in the interaction between humans and parrots and when parrots are sold to persons with little knowledge in this field all reasonable steps will be taken to inform the person of the behavior of parrots and all needs of the parrot. This will ensure a successful relation between owner and animal and the safety and quality of life for the parrot.

3.2 Selection
With due regard  to the Cites list of Endangered Species  the public  will be discouraged from keeping parrots that are endangered as pets. All members will, as far as practically possible, refrain from crossbreeding parrot species and special effort will be taken to successfully breed endangered species. Members will refrain from breeding with animals that are related to each other.

3.3 Nutrition
Nutritional requirements of species will be taken into account when formulating the diet of parrots. A varied diet will be provided that can include seeds but will not consist of a seed only diet. Fresh fruit and vegetables will be provided on a regular basis. Water and food bowls will be kept clean and water will be replaced daily.

Facility needs:

4.1 Housing
Parrots will be housed in clean and suitable aviaries that are protected against draughts, extremes of weather, predators and rodents. Aviaries will be constructed of impervious material that can be washed and sterilized. At least two wooden perches will be provided that will be placed as not to interfere with free flight. Aviaries will be a minimum of 600mm wide but not less than twice the wingspan of the parrots housed in it. The length will be sufficient for the specie to fly freely and exercise in the aviary. Overcrowding of aviaries will be avoided and breeding parrots will be kept separate to avoid fighting accept where parrots breed in flocks in nature. Suitable divisions will be placed between breeding parrots in close proximity to avoid fighting.  Sufficient bait stations must be places around aviaries for rodents.

4.2 Handling
Equipment to safely catch and handle parrots will be kept. The frequency and duration of handling of parrots that are not pets will be reduced to the minimum to avoid stress. Staff should have access to disinfectants and hand washing facilities before and after handling of parrots. Pinioning of wings is to be avoided at all cost. Wings are to be cut with the same number of flight feathers on each wing only when necessary.

4.3 Breeding
Suitable nesting boxes must be provided. The size and construction of the box must be suitable for the specie. If parrots are aggressive more that one exit should be provided for the female to escape from an aggressive male. If more than one pair of birds can safely be kept in an aviary more nest boxes will be provided than the number of pairs. Closed identification rings should be placed on young offspring of the diameter as prescribed  by PASA, the year, breeders code and a unique number must appear on the rings. Parrots to be exported may have the code: “ZA-0” on the ring.

A certificate by PASA should be used to reflect the sex of parrots that was determined by DNS samples.

Environmental needs:

5.1 Hygiene
Birds will be monitored on a daily basis for signs of disease and a sick bird will  immediately be isolated and treated for the ailment. Possible symptoms of ill health to be observed include:

  • Changes in appearance and consistency of droppings.
  • Changes in food or water consumption.
  • Changes in attitude or behaviour.
  • Changes in appearance or posture.
  • Changes in weight.
  • Enlargements or swelling.
  • Vomiting, injury or bleeding.
  • Discharge from nostrils, eyes or beak.
  • Excessive loss of feathers.
  • Overgrown beak or nails.

Preventing disease:
In preventing disease outbreaks the following steps are to be taken:

5.1.1.    Keep the Aviaries and equipment clean:

  • Remove all litter and weeds from the aviaries and surrounding area.
  • Thoroughly clean concrete floors, aviary wire and walls with disinfectant.
  • Clean and disinfect water and food bowls regularly.
  • Reduce shelter for vermin and rats in the area around the aviaries.
  • Keep bird rooms under quarantine conditions.
  • Keep bird rooms well ventilated.

5.1.2        Avoid contact between aviary birds and wild birds:

  • Prevent contact by restricting access to open ponds.
  • Water bowls should be situated under roofs where the droppings of birds flying overhead cannot reach it.
  • Discourage  wild birds from nesting or perching near the aviaries.

5.1.3         Provide clean water and food:

  • Store all feed in airtight containers and prevent vermin contamination
  • Ensure water supplies are chlorinated or from a microbiogically clean borehole.
  • Provide fresh food and discard all unused food daily.

5.1.4 Limit visitors to the aviaries:

  • Restrict access to aviaries and bird rooms.
  • Provide  disinfectant for hands at entrance.
  • If quarantine facilities are used restrict access to workers and Veterinary Officials
  • Designated workers should have access to the aviaries and other designated workers should have access to the bird rooms.

5.1.5 Quarantine new birds:

  • Separate and quarantine new birds for at least 30 days .
  • Source birds from reputable dealers or breeders.
  • Inspect new birds and make sure all birds are healthy.
  • Birds in Quarantine should be fed last and workers should disinfect themselves before entering the aviaries.

5.1.6 Post mortems on birds:

All birds that die under unknown circumstances to be subjected to post mortem.

Monitoring of wild birds:

  • All wild birds in and around area of aviaries to be monitored for unnatural deaths.
  • All unnatural deaths in large numbers to be reported to the Director, Animal Health, Department of Agriculture, as a matter of urgency.

All members will adhere to and comply with all provisions of the Animal Diseases Act, no 35 of 1984. In particular Section 11 of the Act that provide that any owner of animals will with due observance of the provisions of the Act, take all reasonable steps to prevent the infection of an animal with any disease or parasite and the spreading thereof from the relevant land or animals. All controlled diseases will immediately be reported to the secretary of PASA and to the Director, Animal Health in terms of the Act.

All members must, as far as possible, make use of a qualified veterinarian for treating sick parrots and must have a program for treatment and prevention of disease and parasites.

5.2 Transport
Parrots will be transported in suitable new or disinfected boxes. Parrots that are known for aggression will be transported separately. The size of the boxes will be so as to allow the parrot free room to turn but small enough to avoid attempted flight and injury. The boxes will have adequate ventilation and one side will have wire mesh. The ventilation holes will be small enough so that the head of the parrot cannot protrude. Birds will be protected from extremes of cold and heat during transportation. Birds that are transported for more than 3 hours will be provided with water or water carrying fruit or vegetables. Parrots will not be booked in for a flight longer than 4 hours before the flight. Containers that are transported by public transport must be marked “live birds” on at least two sides of the container.

If permits are required for transport or keeping of parrots same will be obtained.

5.3 Enrichment
Parrots must have access to sunshine. Parrots that are kept in shade such as African Greys for breeding will have access to sunny aviaries for at least 6 weeks per year. Water for bathing or sprayers must be provided. A variety of food will be provided. Parrots that are kept separately as pets will be provided with toys to avoid boredom. Parrots will be kept in as natural surroundings as possible. The environment of the parrots will be enriched where possible.

Activity needs:

6.1 Exercise
Parrots in aviaries will have free flight. The perches will be placed as far forward and back so that the flight area is as long as possible. Parrots will not be kept in show cages or auction cages for more than 48 hours.

6.2 Training
Parrots as pets will be taught basic training like the step up or down command.
Breeding parrots will be subject to a fixed schedule of feeding and daily routine.

6.3 Social
Parrots are social animals and should have interaction with humans where possible as well as other members of their specie. Parrots that are hand reared must be sold after they are weaned and must be socialized with other parrots.


Good Code of Conduct

The following Good Code of Conduct is strongly recommended to members:

Keeping of records:
An accurate record should be kept of the following:

  • Visitors to the aviaries
  • Date and origin of birds bought.
  • Eggs and offspring including ring numbers.
  • Symptoms off any disease and medicine administered.
  • Detail of buyers of birds.
  • Health records of breeding stock and offspring to be safeguarded for 10 years.
  • Post mortems.
  • Unnatural deaths of wild birds in large numbers.


  • Provide clean disinfected over coats and boots to visitors.
  • Provide footbaths for visitors


Papegaaitelersvereniging van Suidelike Afrika



1 Inleiding:
In navolging van die doelstellings soos uiteengesit in die Konstitusie van die Papegaaitelersvereniging van Suid Afrika (PVSA), naamlik om die Regte van lede te beskerm om papegaaie aan te hou, te teel en daarmee handel te dryf, leiding te gee hoe om papegaaie te versorg, te huisves, te teel en daarmee handel te dryf en met Nasionale en Internasionale organisasies saam te werk wat die belang van die lede raak, word die volgende Praktykskode hiermee geïmplementeer vir alle lede.

Addisioneel tot die Praktykskode word as Deel II hiervan `n aanbevole Goeie Gedragskode ten sterkste by lede aanbeveel.

Doel van die Praktykskode:
Die doel van die praktykskode is:
2.1 Om minimum standaarde daar te stel vir Papegaai Boere in die voorsiening   van die behoeftes van papegaaie in die volgende velde:

Belangrikste behoeftes geassosieer met domestikasie.

  • Fasiliteitsbehoeftes.
  • Omgewingsbehoeftes.
  • Aktiwiteitsbehoeftes.

2.2 Om standaarde daar te stel wat Internasionaal aanvaarbaar is vir die verskaffing van gesonde papegaaie aan lokale sowel as internasionale markte.

Belangrikste behoeftes geassosieer met domestikasie

3.1 Mense
Papegaai gedrag moet in aanmerking geneem word in die interaksie tussen mense en papegaaie. Wanneer papegaaie aan oningeligte persone verkoop word moet alle redelike stappe geneem word om die persone op hoogte te stel van die behoeftes en gedrag van papegaaie om `n suksesvolle verhouding tussen eienaar en dier en  die veiligheid en kwaliteit van lewe van die papegaaie te verseker.

3.2 Seleksie
Met inagneming van die Cites lys van bedreigde spesies sal die publiek ontmoedig word om papegaaie wat bedreig is as troeteldiere aan te hou.  Alle lede onderneem om so ver prakties moontlik nie papegaai kruisings te teel nie en om die suksesvolle teël van bedreigde spesies te bevorder. Lede sal dit vermy om met papegaaie wat nou verwant is te teël.

.3 Voeding
Voedingsbehoeftes van spesies moet in ag geneem word wanneer hulle dieët formuleer word. `n Dieët met verskeidenheid  kosse moet voorsien word wat nie uit `n voeding van sade alleen mag bestaan nie. Vars groente en vrugte moet op `n gereëlde grondslag voorsien word. Water en kosbakke sal skoon gehou word en vars water sal daagliks voorsien word.


4.1 Behuising
Papegaaie sal in geskikte en skoon hokke aangehou word wat beskerm is teen trekke, ekstreme weerstoestande, roofdiere en knaagdiere. Hokke moet van ondeurdringbare materiaal gemaak word wat wasbaar en steriliseerbaar is.  Ten minste twee hout sitstokke sal verskaf word wat so geplaas sal word dat dit nie vlug belemmer nie. Hokke sal `n minimum grootte hê van 600mm wyd maar nie minder nie as twee maal die vlerkspan van die papegaaie daarin. Die lengte sal voldoende wees vir die papegaaie om vrylik te vlieg en te oefen.  Oorbevolking van hokke sal vermy word en broeipare sal alleen gehuisves word om bakleiery te vermy tensy hulle van nature in swerms broei . Geskikte afskortings sal tussen hokke aangebring word wat na aan mekaar is om bakleiery te vermy. Voldoende bytstasies moet om hokke geplaas word vir knaagdier beheer.

4.2 Hantering
Toerusting om papegaaie veilig te vang en hanteer moet aangehou word.

ie aantal kere wat papegaaie, wat nie troeteldiere is nie, gevang en hanteer word moet beperk word om stres te beperk. Personeel moet toegang hê tot wasbakke en ontsmettingsmiddels  voor en na hantering van papegaaie.  Die lid van vlerke moet te alle koste vermy word. Alleen indien die sny van vlerke noodsaaklik is moet dieselfde aantal penvere op elke vlerk gesny word.

4.3 Broei
Geskikte neskaste moet voorsien word. Die grootte en konstruksie moet vir die spesie geskik wees. Indien aggressie `n probleem is moet meer as een uitgang voorsien word vir die wyfie om te kan ontsnap. Indien meer as een paar per hok met veiligheid aangehou kan word sal meer neskaste verskaf word as wat daar pare is. Jong papegaaie behoort gering te word  vir identifikasie met `n geslote ring, die grootte soos voorgeskryf deur die PVSA waarop die jaartal, telerskode en `n unieke nommer moet verskyn. Papegaaie vir die uitvoermark kan die kode: “ZA-0” op die ring vertoon.

n Sertifikaat deur die PVSA moet gebruik word ter identifisering van die geslag van papegaaie wat deur middel van DNS bepaal is.


5.1 Higiëne
Papegaaie sal op `n daaglikse basis moniteer word vir tekens van siektes en siek voëls sal onmiddellik isoleer en behandel word. Moontlike tekens van siekte sluit die volgende in:

  • Verandering in voorkoms en samestelling van uitskeiding.
  • Verandering in voedsel en kos inname.
  • Verandering in houding en gedrag.
  • Verandering in voorkoms en postuur.
  • Verandering in gewig.
  • Vergrotings en swellings.
  • Naar word, beserings en bloei.
  • Afskeiding van die neus, oë en snawel.
  • Oormaat verlies van vere.
  • Vergroeide bek en naels.

Voorkoming van siekte:
In die vermyding van die uitbraak van siektes moet die volgende stappe geneem word:

5.1.1 Hou die hokke en toerusting skoon:

  • Verwyder alle bossies en gemors in en om  die hokke.
  • Ontsmet en maak sementvloere, draad van hokke en mure deeglik skoon.
  • Ontsmet en maak water en kosbakke gereeld skoon.
  • Beperk wegkruipplek vir muise en rotte naby die hokke.
  • Hou voëlkamers onder kwarantyn toestande.
  • Hou voëlkamers behoorlik geventileer.

5.1.2 Vermy kontak tussen hok- en wilde voëls:

  • Vermy kontak deur toegang tot oop damme te beperk
  • Water bakke moet onder dakke geplaas word waar mis van verbygaande voëls dit nie kan bereik nie.
  • Ontmoedig wilde voëls om naby die hokke te sit of broei.

5.1.3 Verskaf skoon water en kos:

  • Stoor kos in lugdigte houers en vermy besmetting daarvan.
  • Maak seker dat water chloor bevat of van `n mikrobiologiese skoon boorgat kom.
  • Verskaf skoon kos en gooi ou kos daagliks weg.

5.1.4 Beperk besoekers aan die hokke:

  • Beperk toegang tot die hokke en voëlkamers.
  • Verskaf  handsproeiers by ingang.
  • Indien kwarantyn fasiliteite gebruik word beperk toegang tot werkers en Veterinêre beamptes.
  • Bepaalde werkers moet toegang tot die hokke en ander werkers moet toegang tot die voëlkamers hê.

51.5 Kwarantyn nuwe voëls:

  • Sonder nuwe voëls af en kwarantyn vir minstens 30 dae.
  • Bekom voëls van betroubare telers en handelaars.
  • Ondersoek nuwe voëls en maak seker dat hulle gesond is.
  • Voëls in kwarantyn moet laaste gevoed word en werkers moet hulle ontsmet voordat die broei hokke weer besoek word.

5.1.6 Nadoodse ondersoeke:
Alle voëls wat onder onbekende omstandighede sterf moet onderwerp word aan `n nadoodse ondersoek.

5.1.7 Monitering van wilde voëls:

  • Alle wilde voëls in en rondom die hokke moet dop gehou word vir onnatuurlike sterftes.
  • Alle onnatuurlike sterftes in groot getalle moet dringend  aan die Direkteur, Dieregesondheid, Departement van Landbou, aangemeld word.

Alle lede moet voldoen aan die bepalings van die Wet op Dieregesondheid, no. 35 van 1984. Meer spesifiek bepaal artikel 11 daarvan  dat die eienaar van diere, met inagneming van die bepalings van die Wet, alle redelike stappe moet neem om die besmetting van enige dier met enige siekte of parasiet te voorkom asook die verspreiding daarvan van die bepaalde diere of grond. Alle beheerde siektes moet onmiddellik aan die PVSA kantoor asook die Direkteur, Dieregesondheid, aangemeld word.

Lede moet sover moontlik gebruik maak van `n gekwalifiseerde veearts vir die behandeling van siek papegaaie en moet `n program hê vir behandeling en voorkoming van siektes en parasiete.

5.2 Vervoer
Papegaaie moet in gepaste nuwe of ontsmette vervoerkaste vervoer word. Papegaaie wat bekend is vir aggressie moet apart vervoer word.  Die grootte van die kas moet voldoende wees om die papegaai  die geleentheid te gee om te kan draai maar klein genoeg dat dit nie sal probeer vlieg en homself beseer nie.

ie kaste moet voldoende ventilasie hê en een kant moet moet van gaas draad wees. Die ventilasie gate moet klein genoeg wees dat die papegaai se kop nie daardeur kan steek nie. Gedurende vervoer moet papegaaie beskerm word teen uiterste hitte en koue. Indien die vervoer langer as 3 ure duur moet water of waterhoudende vrugte of groente in die kaste geplaas word. Papegaaie moet nie langer as 4 uur voor `n vlug ingeboek word nie. Vervoerkaste vir  openbare vervoer moet aan ten minste twee kante gemerk word:”lewende voëls”

Indien permitte benodig word vir vervoer of aanhouding van apegaaie sal sodanige permitte bekom word.

5.3 Verryking
Papegaaie moet toegang tot sonskyn kry. Papegaaie soos African Grey`s wat in skadu toestande gebroei word moet ten minste 6 weke per jaar in sonnige hokke wees.  Water bakke om te bad of sproeiers moet verskaf word.  ? Verskeidenheid kosse moet verskaf word. Papegaaie wat apart as troeteldiere aangehou word moet speelgoed kry om verveling teen te werk. Papegaaie moet in omstandighede so na moontlik as natuurlik aangehou word. Die omgewing van die papegaai moet waar moontlik verryk word.


6.1 Oefening

Papegaaie in hokke moet vry kan vlieg. Sit stokke moet so vêr as moontlik voor en agter in die hokke wees sodat die vliegafstand so lank moontlik is. Papegaaie mag nie vir langer as 48 uur in veilings hokke gehou word nie.

.2 Afrigting
Papegaaie as troeteldiere moet die basiese bevele soos “op” en “af” geleer word. Papegaaie waarmee geteel word moet  aan `n vaste skedule en daaglikse roetine gewoond wees.

.3 Sosiaal
Papegaaie is sosiale diere en moet waar moontlik interaksie  met mense en ander lede van hulle spesie hê. Handgrootgemaakte papegaaie moet verkoop word na hul gespeen is en moet sosialiseer met ander papegaaie.

Deel II

Goeie gedragskode

Die volgende goeie gedragskode word sterk by lede aanbeveel:

Byhou van rekords:

  • Akkurate rekords behoort gehou te word van die volgende:
  • Besoekers aan die hokke
  • Datum en oorsprong van nuwe voëls
  • Eiers en kleintjies insluitende ring nommers
  • Simptome van siektes en medikasie toegedien
  • Detail van kopers van voëls
  • Gesondheidsrekords van broeipare en kleintjies wat vir 10 jaar geberg word.
  • Nadoodse ondersoeke
  • Onnatuurlike sterftes in groot getalle van wilde voëls.


  • Verskaf skoon, ontsmette oorjasse en stewels aan besoekers
  • Verskaf voetbaddens by ingang


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